Land tenure in Vietnam is becoming increasingly contested in the context of rapid economic development and growing inequality. Agricultural land in and around cities is targeted developers for conversion to commercial uses. In rural areas, farmers‟ access to productive land is restricted by the prevalence of state-owned farms and forest enterprises. As a result, the number of complaints filed over land issues has increased dramatically in the last decade, and the revision of the Land Law in 2013 led to an unprecedented level of public participation in land policy formation. This article applies a political economy approach to processes of agricultural land conversion through analysis of the interests and incentives of key actors within and outside the Vietnamese state; the gap between legal documents and policy implementation; and processes of interaction among multiple stakeholders over time. Data sources include monitoring of official media and blogs, interviews with officials and experts, and direct experience in coalition building. The authors present case studies of successful and less successful local advocacy around land issues. In the discussion and conclusion sections, the article explores the extent to which emerging narratives of farmers‟ rights may challenge the model of economic growth through resource extraction.
This report outlines the main findings of ORIE operations research on promoting women’s use of antenatal care (ANC) services. The study supports refinement of the advocacy strategy for this, implemented by the Working to Improve Nutrition in Northern Nigeria (WINNN) programme.
This briefing outlines the findings from operations research on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and early initiation. The study supports refinement of the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) strategy implemented by the Working to Improve Nutrition in Northern Nigeria (WINNN) programme.
This briefing is based on the 2014 evaluation of nutrition work supported by WINNN in Jigawa, as well as ORIE research in 2015. Interviewees included political leaders and government officials, development partners, health workers, community volunteers, traditional leaders, civil society and community members.
This briefing is based on the 2014 evaluation of nutrition work supported by WINNN in Katsina, as well as ORIE research in 2015. Interviewees included political leaders and government officials, development partners, health workers, community volunteers, traditional leaders, civil society and community members.
This briefing is based on the 2014 evaluation of nutrition work supported by WINNN in Kebbi, as well as ORIE research in 2015. Interviewees included political leaders and government officials, development partners, health workers, community volunteers, traditional leaders, civil society and community members.
This briefing is based on the 2014 evaluation of nutrition work supported by WINNN in Zamfara, as well as ORIE research in 2015. Interviewees included political leaders and government officials, development partners, health workers, community volunteers, traditional leaders, civil society and community members.
Recent research literature reflects a current high level of interest in understanding the links between participation and development. In particular, there have been attempts to summarise large bodies of evidence about the effects of participation. Much of the theoretical literature on participation and associated development interventions derives from a normative and hierarchical model of change that lacks contextual and institutional insights. A review of the empirical and theoretical literature suggests that a more disaggregated and less normative approach to the analysis of participation is required to create an understanding of the conditions under which participatory approaches may further development objectives, and to aid the design of specific interventions. This perspective has driven the design of a simple analytical framework outlined in this paper, and its proof-of-concept application in the Malawi health sector.
This briefing note summarises the findings of qualitative research on the governance and social contexts for nutrition interventions. The research provides an evaluation ‘baseline’ for the WINNN programme.
This important book tackles some of the main security challenges facing the international development community today. Containing contributions by leading experts, including some who have been at the centre of the international policy debate, it goes further by putting forward suggestions and recommendations as to how best deal with these threats as well as challenges in this crucial area.
Cash transfers form increasingly important parts of social protection systems in most countries. Usually, cash transfers are evaluated against their effects on poverty or human capital, with their impact on social relations within and between households relegated to discrete comments on ‘stigma’, ‘resentment’, and sharing, including reduction of remittances and other support. Using evidence from Oxford Policy Management’s evaluations of cash transfer programmes in Malawi and Zimbabwe, we suggest reconsidering this approach. We suggest conceptualising cash transfers as ongoing processes of intervention in a complex system of social relations. Cash transfer interventions operate through and affect this system at each stage: awareness-raising, targeting, payment, case management and monitoring and evaluation. We conclude that the impact of cash transfers on social relations is large and often negative. We argue that this is intrinsically important for wellbeing, but can also have negative consequences for material aspects of wellbeing, such as livelihoods.
A common feature of many intra-household models that assume Pareto efficiency is the assumption that household members either explicitly or implicitly make transfers of income between themselves to attain efficiency on the household level. This paper uses an experimental design directly testing this by using treatments that vary initial endowments of spouses and final allocation rules in a voluntary contribution mechanism (VCM) using data from 1,200 married couples in Ethiopia. Overall, most of the empirical results cast doubt on household models that assume Pareto efficiency and provide some support for behaviour guided either by fairness or similar norms. This paper is part of a research project in collaboration with the University of East Anglia that investigates how intra-household decisions, which often favour males over females, are made.
It is widely recognized that HIV/AIDS has devastating but also uneven effects on afflicted communities. While much research has rightly focused on the impact of HIV/AIDS on families, communities and countries, less attention has been paid to foster carers' experiences and to the network of care. Based on qualitative fieldwork carried out over a 3-month period in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, this study analyses the experiences of those caring for orphans who receive a state-funded Foster Care Grant. Conversations with caregivers suggest the contentious nature of care; this is worth exploring further, as it can cast light on how such macro-level interventions are shifting what it means to be an orphan at the community level. The main reason for bringing these issues to the fore is to make development interventions better informed and therefore better able to address those factors giving rise to the challenges faced by caregivers.
Many poverty-focussed programmes, for example cash transfer programmes, explicitly aim to target assistance or services at the poorest households. It is important, in terms of both poverty reduction and financial efficiency, that such programmes manage to target these households effectively. However targeting involves various technical and operational challenges, as well as the more foundational challenge of defining who counts as 'poorest'. This briefing note outlines the key technical challenges to effective targeting: (a) in establishing the target population; and (b) in designing an operationally feasible mechanism to reliably identify this target population. Different mechanisms for targeting are discussed, as are key strengths and weaknesses.
Vocational training incidence for those at work is frequently financed partly or wholly by employers, who then lose part of their investment return if workers migrate to other firms. We investigate the incidence of training and the incidence of job-to-job mobility for a large sample of British workers in 1984 and 1989. We also analyse the role of sectoral technology characteristics in influencing patterns of both training and inter-firm mobility. Our results demonstrate that job-to-job mobility is highest for the young and higher for those with formal educational qualifications than for the unskilled. These are also characteristics which engender a higher training propensity; so, unavoidably, private gains to training for employers are below social gains for these young people. Public-sector workers have high training rates but low mobility; this perhaps explains the lack of perception of the poaching problem by successive governments. Sectoral R&D activity is associated with more training and less mobility for men; in contrast, women are more likely to train and are less mobile if the rate of adoption of innovation is rapid.
The incidence of vocational training is influenced by characteristics of workers and firms. We investigate the determinants of both employer-arranged training and individually organised training. The data relate to training spells experienced by 2,000 British workers in 1984-7. when the propensity to train was rising rapidly. Both recent training and future expected training are related to a wide range of personal and job characteristics, including attitudes and incomes. Low income is associated with the failure to undertake training, suggestive of market failure in selection. However, training incidence is higher for those with positive career aspirations, which reflects an efficient selection rule.